Archive for the ‘Corn, Soybean & Wheat’ Category

Aug
9

Yellow Flash in Soybeans

By Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

Overlap areas whether in the middle of the field or in the headlands for some soybean fields has shown an interesting coloration. Often when we see yellowing beans in a field we think of micro nutrient deficiencies such as manganese. Those appear as areas in the field circular or semi circular areas. The linear patterns and location of yellow patches being seen happen after applications of glyphosate about 3 weeks ago. The areas where sprayers were turned on and off  are most pronounced.

Yellow flash is the name given to this phenomenon. This has been noted in other areas of the midwest in previous growing seasons. The conditions leading to this tend to be:

  1. Rapid soybean growth after application
  2. Sprayer overlap or other application conditions that lead to higher product application.
  3. Areas prone to micro nutrient deficiencies primarily manganese or iron.

The yellowing is a by product of the level of AMPA in the leaf which is a breakdown product of glyphosate which reduces chlorophyll levels in the newly developing leaf give the yellow appearance.  If you want more information, Dr Mark Loux has a couple of links posted at http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2011/2011-26/yellow-soybeans-in-response-to-glyphosate-applications

Jul
29

Western Bean Cutworm Update July 29th

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

Trap Counts for local traps appear to have peaked during the week. Two of the three traps showed a decline while third trap had big numbers of 35-40 per day early in the week but dropped of to just 3-5 per day by weeks end. The week did not yield any big finds of eggs or larval damage, in fact it was more difficult this week to eggs or larvae than it was during the week of July 18th. In fact there is a lot of speculation that the extreme heat has set this insect back this year.  Refer to last weeks article for scouting information.

Jul
27

Healthy Soils Better Crops Workshop August 18th

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

Stewardship of the soil is a concern for farmers wanting to maximize yield. Preventing erosion, compaction issues and other soil factors play a role in long term profitability in our corn, soybean and wheat production systems. The Soil Health and Cover Crop Field Day scheduled for August 18th from 9:00 am until noon is an upcoming event designed to better understand soil factors and explore practices that can improve soils. The program will be held at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station-OARDC, 4240 Range Line Road, Custar, Ohio in Western Wood County.

The program features Ray Archuleta, NRCS Conservation Agronomist, Soil Quality Team, East National Technology Support Center Greensboro, NC who has gain a national reputation in soil quality factors and cover crop utilization. Additionally plots which have been under crop and tillage rotation studies since the 1960’s on the branch site will be highlighted. Additional speakers will highlight economics, water quality, nutrient cycling and increasing water holding capacity in soils during the 3.5 hour session.

The program cost is $15 and preregistration is requested by August 12th. Full program details and links to online registration can be found at http://agcrops.osu.edu/calendar. For more information you may call Greg LaBarge, OSU Extension Educator at 419-337-9210 or e-mail labarge.1@osu.edu.

Jul
22

Recovery of Wind Downed Corn

By Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

Wind downed corn from the July 11 storms in Fulton County caused a couple of sleepless night. The recovery was amazing though and I was able to document at a couple of sites the difference a couple of days made and resiliency of the crop.  A series of slides can be seen at this link Fulton Wind Damage Presentation. Note in the field picture the silo in the background and dates in the corner of the picture. The phenomena you are seeing has been played out across the midwest this year  with Wisconsin, Ontario and others see this same situation. Only corn tasseling or very close to tassel would be expected to see significant yield reductions.  Several articles were written on the topic. I would point you to these for further reading:

CORN Newsletter 2011-22 Effects of wind lodging on corn performance

Wisconsin Agronomy Advice July 11, 2011 Yield Response of Flattened (Lodged) Corn

King Corn Purdue (2003) Rain, Hail, Wind: What Next?

 

Jul
12

Wind Damage on Corn

by Glen Arnold, Putnam County

A storm front on Monday July 11th brought much needed rain to northwest Ohio but high winds flattened corn in many fields.

Peter Thomison, OSU Extension corn specialist, addressed this topic in the most recent CORN newsletter http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2011/2011-22/effects-of-wind-lodging-on-corn-performance

An article in 2003 written by Bob Nielsen, Purdue University corn specialists, also mentions this topic  http://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/articles.03/RainHailWind-0709.html

University of Wisconsin corn agronomists Joe Lauer recently authored an article entitled Yield Response to Flattened (Lodged) Corn at http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu/AA/A086.aspx

Locally, the taller corn seemed to handle wind better than the shorter corn. This is probably due to having developed brace roots to better support the stalks.

Jun
11

Dead Areas in Wheat Fields

  by Glen Arnold, Putnam County

The excessive rainfall in April and May have resulted in dead areas showing up in local wheat fields. The saturated soils deprived the wheat plants of oxygen in the root zone and caused their eventual death.

In some fields the damage is limited to just low areas. In other fields the damage is more extensive and some farmers are considering harvesting the wheat plants as wheatlage in round bales or killing the wheat and planting soybeans.

It’s difficult to estimate potential yields on wheat fields damaged by the excessive water. A local crop adjustor estimated one wheat field as having a yield potential of less than 10 bushels per acre. Famers with crop insurance should check with their local insurance agent before making any final decisions.

May
31

What Corn Maturity Should I Plant in June?

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

June 2 update. Peter Thomison has put together a chart for Ohio with dates and Crop Relative Maturity (CRM) targets. Which is found to the left. An article accompanying this information can be found at http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2011/corn-2011-16/more-on-switching-hybrid-maturities

What do we do about corn maturities as we finish off the late planting season is a common question today and Dr Bob Nielson has provided a chart for Indianan we can adapt to our NW Ohio area. The table has two different goals that affect the maturity we plant based on June planting. A target of reaching physiological maturity by first frost and one week prior to first frost is highlighted in the table below. You can see Dr Nielsen’s entire article at http://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/articles.11/SafeHybridMaturities-0517.html

For NW Ohio the far west counties have a frost of October 10, for the rest of the area we have a date that is basically October 15th. This gives us a bit more cushion than the chart below which shows a frost date of October 6th for Indiana.

One other cultural practice that we need to consider related to harvest maturity is use of starter nitrogen. As we get later, it maybe tempting to skip the starter step to save time. While it is true the yield benefits may not be there, some research has shown it maybe a benefit to keep 20-40 pound of N starter in the mix when we talk about fall maturity.

Table 1 Approximate Safe Maturity Dates for Indiana to reach stated goal prior to 50% chance frost date.

Goal Indiana District Typical Corn Relative Maturity Expected Fall frost date 30-May 10-Jun 20-Jun
Physiological Maturity by week of frost NE 109 6-Oct 106 103 98
Physiological Maturity one week before expected  frost NE 109 6-Oct 104 100 95
Recommendations from Dr. Bob Nielson, Purdue University
May
26

Identifying Wheat Head Emergence Stages to Time Head Scab Treatments

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

Head scab treatments are not 100% effective and timing of application is critical to get the most out of these products. In Northwest Ohio over the next 7-10 wheat will be entering these stages. For Fulton County a few fields are approach 10.2-10.4. Most are in GS 9-10.  The timing of application which is most effective is at GS 10.5.1 when the anthers are extended from the glume. The most advanced stage to the left is 10.5 which is just prior to pollination.  From the 10.5  stage look for anthers in the center of the head. A recent article from Pierce Paul in the C.O.R.N. Newsletter Issue 14 discusses in depth the effectiveness of products based on spray timing in a question/answer format.

Stage 10.5.1 with anther extending from the glume. Picture taken 24 hours after stage 10.5 reached.

 

 

 

 

The Head Scab Forecast Model is showing high risk in Williams and Fulton for wheat flowering May 19-26th. and medium risk in most of the region. The model also provides a forward look  based on recent days and the current forecast weather for 24, 48 and 72 hours in the future.

May
24

Decison Resources for Late Planting

by Greg La Barge,  Fulton County

Not surprisingly the NASS-Crop Progress Report showed minimal progress in planting for Ohio in the past week. Ohio was at 11% planted on corn with the US at 79% planted and Iowa 98%, Illinois 90% and Indiana 49%. The full report can be found at http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/CropProg/CropProg-05-23-2011.pdf

Decisions will be many and require a big picture view of your operation over the next 2-3 weeks. A website I would encourage you to look at often in this time period is on our Agronomic Crops Team Website. A page is entitled Decision Resources and Tools for 2011 Late Planting with a direct link of  http://agcrops.osu.edu/links/2011-late-planting-resources/decision-resources-and-tools-for-2011-late-planting is in place to house a variety of information based on question we are getting across the state. We will be updating the site with current agronomic production and crop insurance information you can use to make an informed decision that is best for your farm.

One thing I have noted is this is one of the most complicated issues we have ever faced. There are many nuances to decisions such as prevented planting that will be made and information will be the key. The highlighted website will be updated frequently and have a wealth of information.

May
16

Entering Critical Wheat Stages to Control Disease with Fungicide

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

We are entering the critical stages for protecting susceptible varieties from foliar diseases and head scab. For the best effectiveness we need to closely stage wheat and apply these products at the right time based on disease pressure.

Looking at local wheat field late last week we ranged in stages from Feekes 5 to Feekes 8. As we get into Feekes 8, 9 and 10 these stages are the critical stages as we discuss foliar diseases. Feekes 8 to 10 expose the flag leaf which provides the majority of the energy used to in grain fillThe stages are defined as:

  • Feekes 8- The last leaf (flag leaf) is just showing through the whorl of the stem.
  • Feekes 9 is where the last leaf (flag leaf) is fully out of the whorl with the collar region exposed.
  • Feekes 10 is the boot stage where the head is inside the sheath of the flag leaf.

A line drawing of the stages can be found at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/b827/pdf/Wheat_Management.pdf

At stage 8 through 10 we need to scout for the common foliar diseases we see in Ohio which are primarily powdery mildew and Stagonospora leaf blotch. With powdery mildew 2-3 lesion on the leaf below the flag leaf justifies a spray. For Stagonospora we only need 1-2 lesions on that leaf below the flag leaf to trigger fungicide use. A guide to fungicides for foliar diseases can be found at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ohiofieldcropdisease/wheat/OFCDwheatfungicides.pdf

Besides foliar disease we are concerned about Head Scab (Fusarium Head Blight). This disease is a big concern due to the potential for formation of vomitoxins the contaminate the harvest wheat and lead to dockage or rejection of the grain at the elevator. Fungicides are available that can suppress this disease but timing is critical and the product must be applied after foliar spray timing. The best timing to insure the highest payback is during the early stages of flowering or Feekes 10.5. The wheat head starts to flower from the center of the head and progresses to the base and tip as flowering progresses. More details on the products, effectiveness  and other factors to consider in head scab treatment can be found at http://corn.osu.edu/newsletters/2011/corn-2011-11/fungicide-application-and-vomitoxin-suppression

May
1

Enhanced Head Scab Alert Now In Place

by Jim Lopshire, Paulding County

To assist wheat growers in protecting their wheat crop against this disease and potential vomitoxin levels in 2011, a head scab forecasting system has been created.  The head scab forecasting system at www.wheatscab.psu.edu is an excellent tool to help guide fungicide application decisions.  Based on the flowering date of the wheat crop and the weather conditions leading up to flowering, a producer can use this tool to estimate the risk factor of scab occurring and make a timely fungicide application to protect the crop.  In addition, the commentary section of the scab forecasting website provides up-to-date information on the state of the crop and disease risk, along with disease management recommendations.

Producers can now gain access to the commentaries from the forecasting system directly on their cell phones or in their emails, without having to go to the website.  As the wheat crop develops and begins to approach flowering, the commentaries will be updated regularly and sent directly to the emails or phones of those who sign up to receive the alerts.  You can then visit the website to see whether your crop is at risk and contact your state specialist for more information.

To sign up, go to this link: http://scabusa.org/fhb_alert.php and complete the form with your name, email address, cell phone number and other requested information.  You can choose whether you want to receive the scab alert via email, text message, or both.  You can also choose whether you want to receive alerts from all over the country or only from the Mid West / Mid South Soft Winter Wheat region.

The best and only way to protect your crop against head scab is to apply a triazole fungicide at flowering.  Triazole products such as Prosaro and Caramba will not provide 100% control of scab, but will certainly reduce the incidence of the disease and vomitoxin levels.  However, the decision to apply a fungicide for head scab control is not an exact science.  Fungicide application has to be made well before the producer knows if the disease will occur.

I have gone online to register for the head scab forecasting alert system.  The online process was simple and easy to complete.

Apr
28

Adjusting Corn and Soybean Management from A Wet April

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

We have gotten use to an April start to planting over the past several years. But in the late 80’s and into the 90’s we were often hesitant to start planting until we hit May 1. We are better equipped to handle a wet spring than we were 15 years ago. With increased planter sizes, multiple planters/drills on the farm 10 days of dry weather will change the landscape in a hurry for both corn and soybeans. Some recommendation from the last Crop Observation and Recommendation Newsletter will be helpful as we change some strategies. Here are a few highlights from that newsletter:

Corn. The focus is now planting. Planting date penalties are still minimal. The key thing will be to do everything right at planting. Avoid mudding in a stand since this tends to have a bigger penalty than planting date. Do the minimum amount of tillage to get an adequate seedbed. Plan to sidedress nitrogen. Whatever preplant N was planned can be substituted for minimum 30 lbs of starter N and then sidedress. If you have to preplant N, be sure to allow adequate time between anhydrous application and seeding (7 days, long if hot and dry) or be sure you are deep enough to prevent contact with the seed to avoid germination problems. P and K at planting are only needed if soil test levels are below critical levels. Plan to use your current hybrid mix up until May 20th and focus on longer season hybrids first. Soil tempertures have warmed to the mid 50-60’s. You can think about lowering seeding rates 3-5% over desired harvest population versus the 10 % rate suggested with early planting. Read the rest of this entry »

Apr
28

Wild Onion and Garlic in Wheat

Written by Bill Johnson & Glenn Nice, Purdue University; Posted by Glen Arnold

The perennial weeds wild garlic (Allium vineale) and wild onion (Allium canadense) can often be found in wheat fields and occasionally in corn and soybean fields that have been in a no-till system for several years.  The reproductive structures, the aerial bulblets, are approximately the same size as wheat grain making them difficult contaminants to remove from harvested wheat.  Wheat that is contaminated with these aerial bulblets will be docked for contamination.  Although wild onion is a native to North America, wild garlic is a transplant from Europe.  It is often wild garlic that is found most often in wheat grain settings, although we occasionally find wild onion as well.

Although wild garlic and wild onion are two different species they look very similar.  Both weeds originate from underground bulbs.  Their leaves are very similar being basal, long and narrow.  However, the two weeds can be differentiated by the fact that wild garlic leaves are nearly round and hollow.  Wild onion’s leaves are flat and not hollow (solid).  Also the underground bulbs differ; wild garlic’s bulbs have a thin membranous outer coating while wild onion’s bulbs have a fibrous, net-veined coating.

The reason it is important to be able to differentiate will garlic from wild onion is that control measures for wild onion and wild garlic will differ slightly. Harmony Extra (thifensulfuron + tribenuron) is the most commonly used herbicide to control wild garlic in wheat.  Harmony Extra can be applied before planting or after the wheat has reached the 2-leaf stage, but before flag leaf is visible.  Apply 0.75 to 0.9 oz/A before the garlic is 12 inches tall and if possible when temperatures are 60 degrees or higher.  Dupont recommends for optimum control to apply sequential (or two separate) applications of 0.75 oz/A. Read the rest of this entry »

Apr
18

Updated Soil Temperatures Up To 4/17/2011

by Greg LaBarge, Fulton County

With snow flying this morning it is no surprise we are heading toward a later planting in 2011. There is a field here and there that was planted late last week. The weather outlook is not improving soon based on the forecast for the week. The good thing is we only will need 5-7 days of good weather to nearly get the corn crop in. With soil temperatures where they are we would essential be storing the seed in the ground so at this point it is good to have it in the bag.